Connecting our thoughts and actions

Master Ken Martial Arts Academy of Royal Palm BeachI was introduced to the martial arts when I was seventeen. I took to it immediately. Within a few short years I had earned a Black Belt, a few years later I earned my Second Degree Black Belt, and a few years after that I earned my Third Degree Black Belt.

But somewhere around the Third Degree Black Belt I started to feel like something was missing — it reminded me of a feeling I’d had as a young boy, curious about the interconnectedness of things and people — curious about life. Finally feeling confidence in my ability to defend myself physically, I knew there was more to the martial arts. I just didn’t know what it was.

I did some digging about the ancient Shaolin monks who were, curiously, nothing more than peaceful monks living a monastic life of prayer and meditation before they realized that the mind AND the body were connected. This realization took them in a different direction. They began to also focus also on the physical, to incorporate physical training into their daily routine, and to emphasize connecting our thoughts and actions into their philosophy. The martial arts system that they developed so long ago is the one we practice here today.

It has been over thirty years since I started studying the martial arts. I am a Seventh Degree Black Belt now. I love teaching and I love our school because here, we don’t just learn how to kick and punch and defend ourselves; we also learn to see how connecting our thoughts and actions — and our interconnectedness to each other — heal us, complete us and help us grow.

Our students are our family and we want the very best for them all.


Can Martial Arts Work As A Treatment for ADHD?

An Awesome Alternative to Drugs: Martial Arts Practice As Treatment For Children With AD/HD

Dr. Abida Ripley – September 26, 2003


This paper examines the potential benefits that regular, sustained martial arts activity may have for children who have been diagnosed with Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder (AD/HD). The author suggests that martial arts training, under certain conditions, can help children and their caregivers deal with AD/HD issues without resort to aggressive and possibly harmful drug therapies, which are currently the predominant treatment approach to the disorder.

Between three and five percent of American children are now diagnosed with AD/HD, generally defined as a “neurological syndrome whose classic, defining triad of symptoms includes impulsivity, distractibility, and hyperactivity or excess energy” (Thompson, 1996). Entering popular discourse in the mid-20th century, the relatively new diagnosis of AD/HD has been tied to a host of issues, such as reductions in educational funding, classroom discipline policies, decreases cultural tolerance for differences in children’s behavior, desperate parents searching for a medical label for their children’s behavioral problems, the rise of the new fields of special education and educational psychology, and aggressive pharmaceutical marketing strategies (Malacrida, 2000).

While it is outside the scope of this paper to debate either the legitimacy or the abuse of the AD/HD diagnosis, diagnosed children generally experience difficulty in school and are treated with drug therapies. The most popular of these therapies is the psycho-stimulant medication Ritalin (methylphenidate), a drug that has a host of side-effects and behavioral problems associated with its use on children (Thompson, 1996). Peter Breggin, in Confirming the Hazards of Stimulant Drug Treatment, states, “ When these children developed depression, delusions, hallucinations, paranoid fears and other drug-induced reactions while taking stimulants, their physicians mistakenly concluded that the children suffered from “clinical depression,” “schizophrenia” or “bipolar disorder” that has been “unmasked” by the medications. Instead of removing the child from the stimulants, these doctors mistakenly prescribed additional drugs, such as antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and neuroleptics. Children who were put on stimulants for “inattention” or “hyperactivity” ended up taking multiple adult psychiatric drugs that caused severe adverse effects, including psychoses and tardive dyskinesia.”

The popularity of medicating children with AD/HD is due to the recognition by concerned parents, and educators, that untreated AD/HD affects children’s behavior and performance in school, and life, in a significant and negative manner (Fetto, 2003).

However, non-chemical alternatives to drugs do exist. Some theorists have suggested that the power of music should be used to calm down the hyperactivity. Bathing, showers or other water sports have also been used as therapy for hyperactivity. It is argued in this paper that one of these potential alternatives is martial arts practice and training. AD/HD is not considered a disease anymore by many. For example, ADD Medical Treatment Center of Santa Clara Valley maintains that it is not a disease but a brain chemical make-up. They suggest that it is not a nervous and mental disorder and it should be controlled with drugs. In contrast, most researches conclude that it should not be treated with medication, as it is not a disease. Dr. Ron Schneebaum, who left his pediatrics practice of ten years to research on this issue, gives interesting evidence of why it cannot be categorized as a disease. He maintains that this is not a disease and therefore use of medication to control it is unnecessary.

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has extensively researched and published about benefits of psychotropic medicines. However, they conclude that the best way to treat the disorder is through monitored drug therapy and a comprehensive behavioral modification treatment. They suggest that medication itself may not be the best thing for most children. “… Medications alone may not necessarily be the best strategy for many children. For example, children who had accompanying problems (e.g., anxiety, stressful home circumstances, social skills deficits, etc.), over and above the ADHD symptoms, appeared to obtain maximal benefit from the combined treatment.”

On the other hand, extensive research has been carried out and a tremendous amount has been written on the negative effects of psychostimulant drugs on children with AD/HD. For example, Dr. Peter R. Breggin, in Talking Back to Ritalin claims that short-term usage suppresses creative, spontaneous and autonomous activity in children, making them more docile and obedient, and more willing to comply with rote, boring tasks, such as classroom work and homework.

Martial arts have a long history of training and discipline in the West. The first North American practitioners of the Asian fighting arts were soldiers, followed by the popular 1960s movie star from Hong Kong, Bruce Lee; then by civilian adult male admirers of Lee followed more recently by many women and children. The early sociological studies on the martial arts focused on the fact that participation in the martial arts actually worked to reduce the practitioners’ aggression (Nosanchuk, 1981). More recent research has shown similar results. Kombat Arts Training Academy maintains, “The classes help channel aggression. Studies have shown that the martial arts can be good for child that has A.D.H.D. That is because the martial arts can give a positive outlet for all of the kid’s energy.” Subsequent research into the personalities and lives of martial arts practitioners focused on their self-esteem and self-image levels, and suggested that martial arts practitioners tended to be psychologically healthy and well-adjusted people (Konzak & Klavora, 1980). Advocates of martial arts claim that “the martial arts have a direct bearing on morality, disciplined ritual, and knowledge of man in the universe” (Becker, 1982, 19), and gradually, researchers noted the Eastern philosophies that permeated martial arts practices encouraged “formation of good moral character” and “non-violent attitudes and behaviours” (Bäck and Kim, 1978, 24).

Today, the majority of martial arts practitioners are young people and children, and the benefits of martial arts practice for these young people are said to be even greater than for adults (Vockell & Kwak, 1990). The martial arts foster in both the older and the younger practitioner “motivation, discipline, and resultant change” (Brownridge, 1975, 56). The younger practitioner, in many ways, derives more immediate and more lasting benefits, because the martial arts training and tenets become an ingrained part of his character before that character is fully formed (Wiley, 1995). Parents of young martial artists routinely report improved physical well-being and improved self-confidence, as well as many other psychological benefits attributable to the training (Boudreau, 1995).

As they work, with their body, to master specific techniques, the martial artist “works on personal character and attitude” (Cerny, 1981, 47). One author calls the Japanese martial art of aikido “philosophical education in action” (Linden, 1986). Certain Asian governments have long believed exposing their youth to martial arts training makes good citizens (for South Korea, see Kim, 1996, for Japan, see Neide 1995). Parents of young martial artists frequently report better behavior, better school performance, higher self-confidence and self-esteem, and higher aspirations among their children (Vockell & Kwak, 1990, Abernathy, 1995).

How is it that the martial arts foster these changes, and how, specifically, can these changes benefit children with AD/HD?

Some of the Benefits

Some of the benefits resulting from martial arts practice are simply the benefits of exercise, and similar benefits may result from enrolling a child in any sport that features extended body movement and regular exercise (Gummerson, 1992a). These physical benefits include a healthier body, a more oxygenated brain, and a better processing of the potential dietary culprits of hyperactivity— processed sugars and high-fat junk food. Nutritionist Nicholas Kirwan state, “Often sugar makes the situation worse. Hyperactivity can be caused by hypoglycemia or, if it is caused by allergies, it can be worsened by excess sugar consumption because of the adverse effect of sugar on the immune system. Hypoglycemia is a common condition where the blood sugar levels fluctuate excessively and dip below fasting levels. It is caused by eating too much sugar and refined carbohydrates. Many hyperactive children eat a lot of sugar and junk foods – when these are taken out of the diet and replaced by complex carbohydrates or snacks containing protein, behaviour improves dramatically.”

Additionally, a sustained commitment to martial arts practice (or a sport) may result in the child and parent paying better overall attention to diet, sleep routines, and daily schedules, leading to a healthier, happier, and more predictable child (Abernathy, 1995).

The real benefits of martial arts practice are mental (some would say spiritual) rather than physical. Most martial arts incorporate meditation and relaxation training, learning how to focus and release energy, moving in tandem with a partner as well as striving to excel alone, and achieving mind-body unity. The physical exercise and mastery is, really, the means to a non-physical end. Whether one calls this state of mind enlightenment (Back & Kim, 1981), self-knowledge (Wiley, 1995), or achieving balance (Wiley, 1995), what the practice of martial arts ultimately works toward is a healthy mind, a healthy spirit, and a healthy body (Reid & Croucher, 1995).

These mental benefits are achieved partially through the challenging physical training, and partially through the incorporation of philosophy into the training. The specific philosophies differ considerably from style to style, and even school to school, but the basic principles they share include respect accorded to “seniors” (such as instructors and parents) as well as peers, consideration of the younger and weaker, perseverance at difficult tasks, and, most importantly perhaps, integrity of self and doing what is “right” (Vockell & Kwak, 1990, Abernathy, 1995, Wiley, 1995).

These positive effects are documented. “Indoctrinated with the idea of respect,” martial arts students tend to become better classroom students (Vockell & Kwak, 1990, 61). A number of authors see this characteristic as the key to what makes the martial arts an effective way of transmitting desirable moral values. For example, Abernathy (1995) argues the inclusion of a traditional martial art in an elementary school physical education curriculum would be beneficial to the children because of such arts combined emphasis on physical skill and transmission of morals and values. Vockell & Kwak (1990) also believe martial arts ought to be brought directly into school curricula, to foster the “cyclical” martial arts/life relationship, in which students curtail “immature or maladaptive behaviors” in order to excel at the martial arts, which helps positively “develop their human personality,” which, in turn, further helps them excel at martial arts.

It should be noted that, unfortunately, there are still few carefully controlled empirical studies on young martial arts students, and none that specifically correlate martial arts activities with AD/HD (Saulny, 2002, B1). It is the hope of the author that this deficiency will be addressed by future research, as the potential benefit to these children is enormous and the number of AD/HD children is large. The promise of such a program, in school or out, is nothing less than transforming the potentially destructive symptoms of their disorder into positive achievements in the martial arts, in school, and in life.

Hyperactive Child in the Martial Arts Classroom

As children with AD/HD face greater challenges in their personal lives, so they will face greater challenges in their martial arts training. But good martial arts classes that are specifically tailored for children already take into account those personality characteristics that make certain activities (including classroom performance) challenging for AD/HD children. An aikido instructor describes the challenge of teaching martial arts to children thus:

Children can be so energetic and spirited that their energy at times seems uncontrollable. Their attention spans are short. They can be easily distracted… Some may not have the skills to mix socially and play with other children their age. (Friedl, 1995, 60)

Martial arts programs that recognize and understand how to effectively teach younger children take the very characteristics that are the symptoms of the AD/HD diagnosis (the symptoms medication works to suppress) and channel them into the art’s physical and mental training. As one martial instructor notes, “Often, a child who is ‘disrupting’ a class can be an important key to how you can change your teaching focus” (Marschke, 1995, 65). Thus, a high-needs child such as one with AD/HD sets the bar that an aware martial arts instructor strives to meet for his class as a whole.

The training works to change the AD/HD behavior from destructive to creative/positive not by blocking it or fighting it, but by first accepting that it is there, and then making it work for the child (Hobbs, 1995). Martial arts training thus has the potential to effect this positive transformation on each of the basic triad of AD/HD symptoms: impulsivity, distractibility, and hyperactivity.

The physical demands of a martial arts class tire the body and take the impulsive edge off the hyperactive child. Additionally, the exercises learnt in class can be practiced at home, where the AD/HD child can “show off” his or her accomplishments for the parents. The martial arts training also gives children and parents specific tools (exercises) into which hyperactivity or excess energy can be channeled. If the child is “bouncing off the walls,” a parent can encourage him/her to practice a form, work together on some punches, kicks, or blocks, or even simply run laps or do sit-ups—the variety of techniques and combinations for exercises and activities that is taught in every martial arts program is endless.

Another tool in the martial arts arsenal that may benefit the child with AD/HD is meditation or other relaxation techniques. Vockell & Kwak (1990) write,

Anxiety and hyperactivity are major problems that inhibit school performance. Meditation strategies can reduce both of these problems. A student can be asked simply to sit quietly and engage in actual meditation for a few minutes to collect his or her thoughts… (p. 62)

Meditation practice has the benefits of teaching the AD/HD child the self-discipline of sitting still, focusing the mind, achieving a quiet state, and being able to achieve self-control through an inner-motivated, self-starting activity.

The “D” of Distractibility in AD/HD can also be addressed through martial arts training, notably through the aforementioned variety of techniques and exercises that comprise each martial art and each martial art class. The child needs to concentrate on one specific task for only a short time. The task or technique at hand is changed into another quickly. Through the hour-long class, the child is engaged in a variety of repetitive tasks, but the tasks vary and interest is sustained. The child is taught to develop powers of concentration, but in very short bursts that are manageable (Gummerson, 1992a, 1992b; Marschke, 1995).

The hierarchical and progressive structure of martial arts training also works to more positively channel distractibility and short attention spans, and to off-set frustration. Students progress through a graded series of steps, and learn complex skills—such as a long form or a difficult kick or grappling release—by mastering smaller, much more digestible parts. A complete form consists of many individual moves, which are learned one at a time.

A complex grappling technique, for example, has several steps. The benefits of this approach extend beyond the obvious one of learning the specific task at hand, into an approach to life that can help the child with AD/HD:

Martial arts students internalize a valuable life skill if they can internalize this notion of breaking a task into small components and being satisfied with small successes. (Vockell & Kwak, 1990, 61)

Coping with the restrictions and regulations of the classroom is difficult for AD/HD children, who are even more impulsive than their non-AD/HD peers. Youth martial arts classes tend to provide structure with opportunities for impulsivity and creativity (Friedl, 1995; Marschke, 1995; Goodman, 1995; Gummerson, 1992a). Repetitive tasks and exercises are interspersed with activities that resemble free play. “Free sparring,” the application of learned techniques in a controlled but unrehearsed combat scenario, is one example of this; another example may involve a group of children working together to create a mini-skit that demonstrates the application of a certain set of techniques (Gummerson, 1992a, 1992b). Moreover, as has been noted earlier, because children learn skills in small, digestible chunks, they also learn to develop their concentration skills in small, achievable steps. They do not need to concentrate hard for an hour or more— rather, they need to concentrate on executing a punch or a kick for a count of four, or performing a partner exercise for two minutes (Gummerson, 1992a; Friedl, 1995). Gradually, their ability to concentrate improves.

As students’ concentration improves, so does their self-control. Learning self-control is an important tenet of many martial arts philosophies and disciplines, and it is the fundamental challenge facing AD/HD individuals. In the martial arts, the children learn to control their bodies, and to control their emotions and reactions. As they practice kicks, punches, blocks, and throws (depending on the specific martial art) with partners, they learn to control how they use their hands and feet in order to not hurt one another. They also learn not to get angry and not to lash out in anger and retaliate (Reid & Croucher, 1995). They learn to use their meditation, relaxation, and breathing techniques to calm down and to ground themselves (Marschke, 1995). All of these benefits accrue equally to the AD/HD child in the martial arts program.

All of these skills can be transferred to the regular classroom (Vockell & Kwak, 1990). Indeed, if a student has an effective, sincere instructor, such a transference is inevitable (Wiley, 1995). However, educators and parents must make a concentrated effort to ensure children perceive the links between what they learn in martial arts class and how they can apply it in school:

Unless children see the connection between martial arts and more formal educational activities, however, they are not likely to let martial arts have a positive effect on their school work. (Vockell & Kwak, 1990, 62).

The ultimate reason martial arts can benefit children with AD/HD is their overt goal to transform the practitioner into a better person. The central struggle for the martial artist, young or old, is internal; it is said that the “toughest enemy is yourself” (Cueves and Lee, 1998, xiii). Martial arts practice gives the young challenged practitioner tools with which s/he can transform into something positive those characteristics that hinder the child’s performance at school: excess energy, frustration, irritability, and distractibility key among them. The techniques learnt within the safe, non-academic environment of the martial arts class can, with the aid of parents and educators, be transferred into the regular school setting. Young practitioners with AD/HD can be encouraged to handle their academic challenges with the same self-control, perseverance, and overall attitude with which they approach their martial arts training. Some benefits may carry over easily and effortlessly—for example, the benefits of improved concentration and improved physical well-being. Others, such as the ability to tackle challenging tasks one step at a time, may require that parents and educators make an explicit link for the child (Vockell & Kwak, 1990).

There are of course some drawbacks and difficulties to using a sustained regular program of instruction as a tool for controlling AD/HD. Since it is not the martial art activity that magically transforms the child, but rather the instructor that gives the child tools to address the symptoms of AD/HD outside the martial arts class, treating AD/HD with martial arts can be more time-consuming and, sometimes, more costly, than automatically treating the disorder with the available medications. It requires considerable commitment and work from the parents, and the active participation of the child in the process. Additionally, it requires a good martial arts instructor and program. Most martial arts programs take place in a dedicated facility rather than at home or in school.

It should perhaps be stressed that for the purposes of evaluating their efficacy in treating AD/HD symptoms, not all martial arts practice may have the hypothesized effect. The potential benefits of training for the child with AD/HD will be unlocked only if the instructor teaches martial arts with an understanding that the lesson is not just physical (Abernathy, 1995)—that is, the benefit results not just from the exercise, but how the exercise is taught and the philosophy (i.e. the transformation of the person) that underlies the teaching.

The Awesome Alternative

In summary, it seems that martial arts training may help AD/HD children improve their overall behavior and lead to better school performance (i.e., higher grades). AD/HD manifests itself through short attention spans, excess energy, and inability to control impulsive behavior. Together, these symptoms adversely affect the performance of children with AD/HD in schools. Their inability to adequately concentrate on school tasks translates into poor academic performance, which results in frustration, on part of children, parents, and educators, compounding the original problem. Martial arts training emphasizes concentration in a number of ways, not the least of which is the necessity to perform one technique or set of techniques over and over again in order to perfect it. This increased ability to concentrate is developed gradually, just as young practitioners learn to learn in small increments and rejoice at small accomplishments.

These “mental” benefits are the “icing” on the more general benefits of regular physical exercises, which helps children burn off the sugars they eat, resulting in improved mood, health and oxygenated brain. Research is now being also done into the impact of martial arts practice on treating and reducing adolescent violence (Twemlow & Sacco, 1998). Taken together, the physical and mental benefits of the martial arts have the potential to treat the symptoms of AD/HD and other behavioral problems, without resort to medication and its harmful side-effects.


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Martial Arts As A Cognitive Development Tool For Children

Martial Arts and Cognitive Psychology: Toward Further Research in the Cognitive Aspects of Martial Arts

John C. Price – Capella University


Psychologists often overlook Martial Arts as a topic of research. This paper presents evidence that Martial Arts are sufficiently different from aerobic and anaerobic exercise to warrant a serious investigation by psychology for both theoretical research and clinical applications. Specific theoretical research in the field of cognitive psychology is proposed.

While Asian Martial Arts have become very popular in the western world, many scientific circles do not take the study of the Martial Arts seriously as a topic of research. In some cases, they may suppose that current research efforts in aerobic and anaerobic exercise are sufficient. In other cases, they may believe that there is nothing to be gained by researching such an esoteric area, or that the research is difficult or impossible.

Still others may view the Martial Arts as a means to placate violence and object for reasons of conscience. Shaler remarks (as cited by Weiser and Kutz, 1995) that the Martial Arts are “ … naught but [a] killing present, anger past, and misery to come in the course of one who studies these arts.” Even so, Martial Arts are beginning to be understood and appreciated in the last 25 years in the west, primarily for the health and exercise benefits. Weiser and Kutz (1995) note “The Martial Arts (MAs) deserve recognition as worthy of being added to this list of therapeutic practices … and to the list of supplements to psychotherapy.” It is my intention to add “theoretical research” to this ever-expanding list of non-combat uses for the Martial Arts, specifically research into the cognitive aspects of Martial Arts.

Many studies point to the mental health benefits of Martial Arts, and the link between traditional (aerobic and anaerobic) exercise and Martial Arts has been noted. To assume that the sole utility in Martial Arts is the link with exercise would be errant since Martial Arts have “an additional and enhancing effect” (Weiser and Kutz, 1995). Further the Martial Arts are noteworthy because they not only do not produce immediate benefits, but they may actually increase anxiety before the benefits take effect (Weiser and Kutz, 1995). Weiser and Kutz (1995) also note that the literature “point[s] out the processes of MAs training … are similar to those of verbal psychotherapy” and that these similarities may be linked to the increase of anxiety during initial stages of training.

One of the problems surrounding study into the Martial Arts is the bewildering number of styles and the disparity of training methods. In my own case I have studied Judo, American Kenpo, Chen style Tai Chi, and I am currently studying Bujinkan Taijutsu. These arts are all distinctly different, both in methodologies and in philosophy – so how does one make a meaningful claim about “the Martial Arts”?

One way to do this is to study a particular portion of Martial Arts training, such as guided imagery, sparring, or weapons training. Cai (2000) did a study of Tai Chi that involved three groups. The first group studied self defense integrated with guided imagery, the second Tai Chi integrated with self-defense, and the control group studied only self-defense. In this study the first two groups “showed significantly lower anxiety and depression scores than the traditional single content program” (Cai, 2000). The study noted no significant difference between the guided imagery group and the Tai Chi group. This study shows an example of isolating specific portions of Martial Arts (in this case, guided imagery and Tai-Chi) and could be expanded on to study other specific portions of Martial Arts.

This is not the whole solution, however, as the whole can not be concluded to be solely the sum of it’s parts. In the end an exhaustive study of individual Martial Arts may be deemed necessary, however examining the pieces is a good place to start. If one finds significance in various pieces, then a good hypothesis would be that there is significance in the whole. If one finds no significance in the pieces, then a good hypothesis may be that the whole produces no scientific significance. While both hypotheses require testing, they are reasonable with sufficient evidence – of which the above study provides but one data point.

Most Martial Arts have a number of things in common. Kihon (“Basics”), Kata (“Forms”), and free response drills are all quite common among Martial Arts, but there are often philosophical similarities as well. Two of these philosophical similarities are Mushin and “Essence”. Mushin is often translated as “no mind”, or “empty mind” and refers to the state of mind one experiences where ones concentration is focused externally to the exclusion of “chatter” – the verbal thoughts that often fill our consciousness. Essence is much trickier concept for the martial artist, but for the psychologist there are echoes of cognitive theories. Many Martial Arts have an overriding philosophy that guides its core, and the Kata (“forms”) are said to be reflections of this “essence”. Once one knows the “essence” of the art, the Kata (“forms”) are no longer needed. Another concept in many Martial Arts is the Henka, or variation. A Henka is similar to a base form and is supposed to teach the same principles as the original.

Nearly every martial art has a ranking system, or some method of setting the beginner apart from the more experienced practitioner. While this is necessary for training progression, it is also convenient for research purposes as this makes the mental differences between the skill levels easier to track.

Another thing that is common among many Martial Arts is the desire to generalize what is learned in the training hall to life experiences other than combat. Vockell and Kwak (1990) give an analogy between chess masters and martial artists. They point out that many very good chess players are poor at academic skills, such as reading, writing, and arithmetic. This is not to say that they are not intelligent, but rather that they have not learned to generalize to life, where as others can see the similarities between chess and real life. “One member of the famous Royal Knights chess team recently stated, ‘Chess is like life. If you have a plan, you will make fewer mistakes than you will without a plan’” (Vockell & Kwak, 1990).

These commonalities give us a good place to start our investigations into the potential rewards for research into the cognitive aspects of Martial Arts. For the rest of this paper I would like to focus on the cognitive aspects of pattern matching, problem solving, prototype creatio n, perception, consciousness, and creativity.

The Martial Arts offer us a unique perspective to the pattern-matching problem. Some Kata (“forms”) have been designed for two or more participants and free sparring provides a unique perspective as well. During both of these exercises, the martial artist is forced to quickly determine a number of attributes about their partner, including such things as foot position, attitude, hand position, distancing, and so on. While I have seen a number of studies published on static pattern recognition, there are much fewer on moving pattern recognition, and even fewer on moving pattern recognition under stress. What differences are there between the three states? What differences are there when movement of the subject is involved? What are the effects of stress on pattern matching? What are the effects of pattern matching under stress while simultaneously undergoing movement?

Unfortunately the nature of these exercises limits the types of experimental data that can be gathered. Some methods, such as the MRI require the subject to be immobile, while others require the subject to wear expensive equipment that can be easily dislodged by vigorous activity. However technological advances may assist in this area once a need is shown. Eye tracking, for instance, has made tremendous advances. A safe device can now be created to do eye tracking on a moving subject, and this can be used to determine the visual aspects of pattern matching of the martial artist. How does eye movement differ between expert martial artists and novices? What can this tell us about pattern matching under stress?

Henka (“variation”) are another potential area of pattern matching research – one which is much easier to deal with. The concept behind Henka is that it similar in principle to a Kata (“form”), but with visual dissimilarities. Interesting questions can then be posed such as “what is the accuracy rate of various practitioners in determining the base Kata from a Henka? How long does it take? How does this compare between various skill levels? How does this compare to standard visual pattern matching tasks? Is there a link between visual pattern matching efficacy and motion pattern matching efficacy?” The last question is, perhaps, the most interesting one.

Problem solving is also another area of potential research. Solso (2001, p. 452) defines problem solving as “thinking that is directed toward the solving of a specific problem that involves both the formation of responses and the selection among possible responses.” In the case of Martial Arts both free response exercises and multi-person forms may provide an interesting window into the subject, though free response exercises would seem to be the most promising. In free response exercises, there are at least two problems present: “how do I keep my opponent from defeating me?” and “how do I defeat them?”

Martial artists typically have a number of responses to choose from as well, including striking, grappling, and exotic moves. The question of what goes into a successful problem response under these conditions is interesting, as is the nature of the solution and the conditions that it was derived under. Typically, there is a very small window of time, and the solution must be determined and executed within that window. Also it is generally expected that the solution is will be arrived at while in a Mushin (“chatterless”) state. In typical problem solving examples (c.f. Solso, 2001, ch. 15) the verbal thoughts are important to the solution. How is the problem solving process different when verbal thoughts are limited or disallowed completely? Given the parameters of the exercise, one may hypothesize that the process will be different, but what if it isn’t? What does that say about our problem solving process? What would it say if it was different?

Another interesting possibility for research is the concept of prototype formation. What does it mean when we claim that a particular technique looks like a “Koto Ryu” technique? Does practicing Kata (“forms”) in a certain manner create a prototype of a successful response? Is this the same as what the martial artists call “essence”? Is there a link between static visual prototype formation (such as learning faces) and prototyping the “essence” of an art?

Solso (2001, 132) holds that a “prototype is an abstraction of a set of stimuli that embodies many similar forms of the same pattern.” That Martial Arts training produces a wide variety of stimuli would generally not be disputed, so the question then is whether learning the Kata (“forms”) and then testing them with free response could be related to, or the same as, prototype formation.

Typically prototype matching is considered to be part of the “pattern matching” field, but what if one hypothesizes that the prototyping structures within the body-mind are available for other functions as well – such as problem solving? Would this give rise to being able to generalize more efficiently between the Martial Arts and real life?

One may also wonder about generalizing other portions of pattern matching, such as gestalt theory, canonic perspectives, and feature analysis. Indeed, an alternate translation of Kata is “pattern”, so one may wonder how much of a link there is between Kata and pattern matching. Are Kata related to “cano nic perspectives”? Is feature analysis an important part of the learning process?

Solso (2001, p. 138 – 39) notes that a study done by Chase and Simon on chess players discovered that the master chess players were able to “see chunks, or meaningful clusters, of chess pieces [that] made it possible for the better players to gather more information in the given time.” One could easily do a similar study with Martial Arts Kata (“patterns”) that would attempt to determine chunking of data among various martial artists’ experience levels.

Perception is another interesting topic that could be applied to the Martial Arts. One question dealing with perception is whether Martial Arts training improves the recognition of sensory signals in a meaningful way. That is, does training in Martial Arts allow one to more easily integrate the several sensory perception for more of a “total picture”? I had several experiences where someone told me that I “paid attention” better after a short period of Martial Arts training. While an interesting proposition, it nonetheless a single data point. If the training does provide training in perception as well, then why does it do so? Is this similar to dance and athletics, or different?

There are other interesting questions as well, though some will likely never be studied. Within the Bujinkan the test for Godan (“fifth degree black belt”, full instructor level) is well known. The person being tested kneels in front of Dr. Masaaki Hatsumi, the current lineage head, with his or her back to Dr. Hatsumi and their eyes closed. Dr. Hatsumi has a bamboo shinai (split training sword) that he raises over his head. At some random point he strikes at the head of the person in front of him with full force. The test is successful if the person being tested gets out of the sword’s way without getting hit.

That this phenomenon occurs cannot be seriously doubted – the test has been given more than a thousand times. And while there is much public debate (within the organization at any rate) as to the “how”, no definitive answer has been proffered. How this occurs is an interesting question that involves perception. Assuming that one discounts mystical explanations, one is left with only some sort of “subliminal perception”. How one would test this is beyond my current knowledge, however, but it may be an interesting problem to find a testable hypothesis for this situation.

Consciousness is another potential, though troublesome, area of research within the Martial Arts. Consciousness research would overlap perception research somewhat as well. Solso (2001, p. 144) defines consciousness as “the awareness of environmental and cognitive events such as the sights and sounds of the world as well as one’s memories, thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations.” The awareness portion would be tested in the same way as one would test perception, but what of the rest of Solso’s definition?

Within many Martial Arts is the concept of Mushin, a state involving “chatterless” concentration. How is this state different than our normal self-talk? Is this state different? Fortunately, movement is not necessary for this state to be entered, though that is an interesting question in itself. A study that compares Mushin with meditative and standard self-talk states could be revealing. Does Mushin change with movement? Is it identical to a standard meditative state? If so, much can be gleaned from the study of both meditative states. If this state is not different than a meditative state then what are the relevant differences? While thoughts would be missing, what feelings, memories, and bodily sensations would be present? What of “pictorial thoughts” (flashes of imagery that convey deep, symbolic meaning in an instantaneous manner)? Are these more common than linguistic thoughts when one enters Mushin?

Creativity can also be studied with Martial Arts, though creativity in general is somewhat problematic to study. Solso (2001, p. 462) defines creativity as “a cognitive activity that results in a new or novel way of viewing a problem or situation.” Solso (2001, p. 462) further describes the current model of creativity as a four stage process involving 1) Preparation, 2) Incubation, 3) Illumination, and 4) Verification. He also notes “empirical evidence … is almost nonexistent” (Solso, 2001, p. 462). Does creative response within Martial Arts follow these four steps?

It is possible, however the steps would be very compact. Are the Martial Arts creative? Intuitively we may say “yes”, but what model of creativity would we use? Incubation would be the problematic step – how does one incubate in such a short period of time? Further, we could ask if the Martial Arts enhance or hinder creativity? One can design an experiment of the latter problem fairly easily by comparing a control group of non-martial artists with a group of martial artists in a test of physical and mental creativity. One might expect more physical creativity and similar mental creativity, however these results cannot be guaranteed. Does physical creativity translate into mental creativity? How about the other way around?

The list that I have presented is not complete, and I expect that many more possibilities for theoretical research could be found. For instance Solso (2001, p. 479) mentions a test of general intelligence involving a subject group learning to play the game “Tetris”. In this case the Glucose Metabolic Rates (GMR) were compared both before and after a period of training. It was discovered that even though they had improved “sevenfold”, the GMR actually decreased significantly. One may ask after reading this study what would we would discover by testing the GMR of different skill levels of martial artists.

General research into human intelligence is also possible. Solso (2001, 469) notes that human intelligence includes at least the following abilities: to classify patterns, to reason deductively, to modify behavior adaptively, to reason deductively, to reason inductively – to generalize, to develop and use conceptual models, to understand. The martial artist utilizes each of these abilities in his or her training. From the ability to classify patterns (Kata) to the ability to modify behavior adaptively (free response drills) each of them are used to some extent and, generally, in a unique fashion.

Research into the psychological aspects of Martial Arts is becoming more popular, though at this point the literature seems to be focusing on the application of Martial Arts to therapy and various social and historical aspects. Literature has noted the similarities of studying Martial Arts to psychotherapy and has suggested that both therapist and client can utilize Martial Arts for a more productive relationship.

For these reasons I have proposed that Martial Arts can be the subject of pure research as well, focusing on the topic of Cognitive Psychology. I have shown possible links between prototype formation and “essence” of a given martial art, and the relation of human intelligence to the Martial Arts. Pattern matching, problem solving, perception, and consciousness were also covered with the hope that the reader will understand some possibilities of research into cognitive aspects of Martial Arts, with the potential of discovering their own paths of research as well.

This paper did not, and cannot, present a comprehensive treatment of the psychological aspects of the Martial Arts. If the reader wishes to offer constructive criticism or exchange further information, the author can be reached at


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Vockell, Edward L., & Kwak, Han S. (1990). Martial Arts in the Classroom. Clearing House [electronic version], Sep/Oct90, Vol. 64, Issue 1

Weiser, Mark, & Kutz, Ilan (1995). Psychotherapeutic Aspects of the Martial Arts. American Journal of Psychotherapy [electronic version], Winter95, Vol. 49 Issue 1.